Nikolai Tikhonov

Nikolai Tikhonov

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Nickolai Tikhonov was born in St Petersburg on 4th December, 1896. He fought in the Russian Army during the First World War. After the October Revolution he joined the Red Army and fought against the Whites during the Civil War.

Tikhonov began writing poetry and in 1922 helped form the literary group, the Serapion Brothers. Inspired by the work of Yevgeni Zamyatin, the group took their name from the story by Ernst T. Hoffmann, the Serapion Brothers, about an individualist who vows to devote himself to a free, imaginative and non-conformist art. Members included Mikhail Slonimski, Mikhail Zoshchenko, Victor Shklovsky, Vsevolod Ivanov and Konstantin Fedin. Russia's most important writer of the period, Maxim Gorky, also sympathized with the group's views.

Tikhonov published his first collection of poems, The Horde, in 1922. This was followed by The Quest for a Hero (1924). Influenced by the work of Boris Pasternak, Tikhonov developed an obscure style in which he used modernist stylistic devices and complex rhymes.

The Serapions insisted on the right to create a literature that was independent of political ideology. This brought them into conflict with the Soviet government and resulted in them having difficulty getting their work published. Tikhonov broke with the Serapion Brothers and another volume of poems, The Shade of a Friend, appeared in 1936. Leningrad Tales followed in 1943.

The winner of three Orders of Lenin and three Stalin Prizes, Tikhonov became President of the Soviet Writers' Union in 1944. He was removed in 1946 as part of the purge organized by Andrey Zhdanov.

Tikhonov work continued to be published and At the Second World Peace Conference appeared in 1951. His popularity with the Soviet government was retained by his attacks on the writer, Boris Pasternak.

Nickolai Tikhonov died on 8th February, 1979.

Tikhonov Nikolai Semenovich: biography, photo

Tikhonov Nikolai Semenovich, whose biographyassociated with Soviet poetry, he devoted his whole life to serving not only the Muse, but also his state. For some reason, critics and literary critics attribute it to the "second echelon" of domestic lyricists, while the poet has his own voice, many creative successes and virtues.

Tikhonravov, Nikolai

Born Oct. 3 (15), 1832, in the village of Shemetovo, in what is now Meshchovsk Raion, Kaluga Oblast died Nov. 27 (Dec. 9), 1893, in Moscow. Russian literary scholar and archaeographer. Member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences (1890).

Tikhonravov graduated from the faculty of history and philology of Moscow University in 1853. He became a professor at the university in 1859 and served as rector from 1877 to 1883. A leading figure of the school of cultural history in Russian literary scholarship, he wrote works on the history of Russian social thought, notably Boiarynia Morozova (1865) and Muscovite Freethinkers of the Early 18th Century and Stefan lavorskii (1870). He also wrote articles on classic and modern Russian and Western European literature, including works on Dante and Shakespeare.

As a publisher, Tikhonravov was responsible for several works of great scholarly importance, for example, the series Chronicles of Russian Literature and Antiquity (vols. 1&ndash5, 1859&ndash63), Monuments of Apocryphal Literature (vols. 1&ndash2, 1863), and Russian Dramatic Works of the Years 1672&ndash1725 (vols. 1&ndash2, 1874). He did much to further the study of the life and works of M. V. Lomonosov, A. P. Sumarokov, V. K. Trediakovskii, D. I. Fonvizin, and A. S. Pushkin. One of Tikhonravov&rsquos highest achievements as a literary commentator was his edition of the works of N. V. Gogol (vols. 1&ndash5, 1889&ndash93), which was completed by V. I. Shenrok.

Through his various works, including those on Western European literature, Tikhonravov exerted a great influence on his contemporaries and students, including I. E. Zabelin, A. N. Pypin, the Veselovskii brothers, and V. M. Istrin.

Nikolai Tikhonov - History

space history discussion forums

worldwide astronaut appearances

selected space history documents

Cosmonaut Nikolai Tikhonov dropped out of the cosmonaut corps

On July 31, 2020, the employment contract with test cosmonaut Nikolai Tikhonov was terminated.

Nikolai Tikhonov was enrolled in the cosmonaut corps in 2006. In June 2009, after completing a course of general space training, at a meeting of the Interdepartmental Qualification Commission (IQC), he was awarded the qualification "test cosmonaut." Later, he underwent training as part of the specialization and improvement group under the ISS program.

From June 2015 to October 2016, he trained as part of the ISS-49/50 backup crew as a flight engineer of the Soyuz MS-02 TPK and an ISS-49/50 flight engineer.

From December 2017 to April 2018, N. Tikhonov was trained as a member of the ISS-57/58 prime crew as a flight engineer of the Soyuz MS-10 TPK. The composition of the crew was changed due to the revision of the ISS flight program.

From June 2018 to February 2020, the cosmonaut was trained as part of the ISS-63 crew as the commander of the Soyuz MS-16 TPK and the ISS-63 flight engineer.

From February to July 2020, he was trained as part of the specialization and improvement group under the ISS program.

N. Tikhonov made the decision to leave the cosmonaut corps in connection with the new data on the state of health.

Currently, the Roscosmos cosmonaut corps includes 31 people, of which 23 are active cosmonauts and eight are candidates for test cosmonauts.

He waited 10 years for his first assignment only to see it vanish because of budget cuts. He then was assigned again, but was yanked because the hardware he was trained to install was delayed.

Finally, two decades after becoming a cosmonaut, his dream of flying in space is about to become a reality and a random accident grounds him. He was penciled in for another flight, but instead he is medically disqualified.

I only met him once, and only spoke directly with him for about 15 minutes, but he was the first cosmonaut I interviewed who not only read this site, but cited something directly from our forums. If he is reading this, I can only say that I feel for his situation.

Apparently, his eye injury is a long term serious issue and we can only wish him well in the endeavours he may choose to pursue.

A well educated young man, who would like to push his frontiers to something bigger. He trains and learns years to fulfill his dreams. Then, some days before his first flight into space, he is abandoned from the crew due to medical problems. This must be the ultimate nightmare for every rookie spaceflyer.

Compare this to an athlete who trains several years to reach for gold at an olympic marathon. At kilometer 41,7 this athlete is in leading position on his last lap in the Olympic arena. The audience in the round screams, claps and stomp their feet. On the last 100m, the athlete collapses in muscle spasm. Medics take him to the medic center for evaluation of his health status. He didn't finish his race and after that Olympic race he couldn't qualify again for the Olympic team.

What a shock. I think everyone can comprehend the feelings of a rookie spaceflyer who is released from the cosmonaut corps due to medical reasons.

It is said that Nikolai Tikhonov is a reader of the collectSPACE forum. He is one of us.

So Nikolai Vladimirovich, I think everyone who contributes to this forum kept the fingers crossed for you to be part of a future crew to the ISS. And I also think that everyone in this forum also keeps the fingers crossed for a improvement of your health status.


Tikhonov, who was Soviet prime minister from 1980 to 1985, died Sunday in Moscow. He was 92. One report said he died of pneumonia. Tikhonov was chairman of the Council of Ministers, the Soviet government's chief executive body, or prime minister. In the Soviet era, most policy decisions were made by the Communist Party and its Central Committee, and the Council of Ministers was responsible mostly for carrying them out. Tikhonov worked as an engineer before World War II and served as a plant director before joining the government ranks.

Adler, a psychiatrist and son of Sigmund Freud's rival, Alfred Adler, died Wednesday in New York. He was 92. He tried to expand on his father's beliefs that women must have equal rights with men and that aggression in men might result if the individual didn't understand the concept of sexual equality. Adler's father broke with Freud over the theme of infantile sexuality in Freud's psychotherapy.

Kazhdan, a scholar noted for chronicling Byzantine history and culture, died of a heart attack Thursday in Washington. He was 74. Kazhdan was a senior researcher at the Center for Byzantine Studies at Dunbarton Oaks in Washington. He immigrated to the United States from the Soviet Union in 1979. He was chief editor of the award-winning, three-volume Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, published in 1991. He began his career training teachers in Moscow but was exiled to posts at provincial colleges during the Stalinist persecution of Jews. In 1956, he returned as a researcher to the Academy of Sciences in Moscow.

Nikolai Tikhonov

Born May 1 (14), 1905, in Kharkov. Soviet state and party figure. Hero of Socialist Labor (1975). Member of the CPSU from 1940.

The son of an office worker, Tikhonov became an assistant locomotive engineer in 1924. After graduating from the Dnepropetrovsk Metallurgical Institute in 1930, he held various technical and engineering positions in industry. Between 1933 and 1947 he worked as a shop superintendent or chief engineer at plants in Dnepropetrovsk and Pervoural&rsquosk. From 1947 to 1950 he was director of the Nikopol&rsquo Southern Pipe Metallurgical Plant.

Tikhonov was head of the central board of the Ministry of Ferrous Metallurgy of the USSR from 1950 to 1955 and was assistant minister from 1955 to 1957. From 1957 to 1960 he was chairman of the Dnepropetrovsk sovnarkhoz (economic council). Tikhonov served from 1960 to 1965 as deputy chairman, with the rank of minister of the USSR, of the State Scientific Economics Council of the Council of Ministers of the USSR. From 1963 to 1965 he was deputy chairman, again with ministerial rank, of the Gosplan (State Planning Committee) of the USSR. In 1965 he became a deputy chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR and in 1976, first deputy chairman. Tikhonov was a candidate member of the Central Committee in 1966. He has been a member of the Central Committee of the CPSU since 1966 and a candidate to the Politburo since 1978. He was a deputy to the fifth through ninth convocations of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.

Tikhonov received the State Prize of the USSR in 1943 and 1951. He has been awarded seven Orders of Lenin, three other orders, and various medals.

Premiership (1980–85)

Appointment and the 26th Congress

When Alexei Kosygin resigned in 1980 Tikhonov, at the age of 75, was elected the new Chairman of the Council of Ministers. [8] During his five-year term as premier Tikhonov refrained from reforming the Soviet economy, despite all statistics from that time showing the economy was stagnating. [1] Tikhonov presented the Eleventh Five-Year Plan (1981–85) at the 26th Party Congress, and told the delegates that the state would allocate nine million rubles for mothers who were seeking parental leave. [9] In his presentation to the congress, Tikhonov admitted that Soviet agriculture was not producing enough grain. Tikhonov called for an improvement in Soviet–US relations, but dismissed all speculations that the Soviet economy was in any sort of crisis. [10] Despite this, Tikhonov admitted to economic "shortcomings" and acknowledged the ongoing "food problem" other topics for discussion were the need to save energy resources, boost labour productivity and to improve the quality of Soviet produced goods. [11] Early in his term, in January 1981, Tikhonov admitted that the government's demographic policy was one of the weakest areas of his cabinet. [12] In reality, however, he along with many others, were beginning to worry that not enough Russians were being born. The Era of Stagnation reduced the birth rate, and increased the death rate of the Russian population. [12]

Andropov and Chernenko

Leonid Brezhnev awarded Tikhonov the Hero of Socialist Labour, after being advised to do so by Konstantin Chernenko. Upon Brezhnev's death in 1982, Tikhonov supported Chernenko's candidacy for the General Secretaryship. Chernenko lost the vote, and Yuri Andropov became General Secretary. [14] It has been suggested that Andropov had plans of replacing Tikhonov with Heydar Aliyev. Historian William A. Clark noted how Aliyev, a former head of the Azerbaijani KGB, was appointed to the First Deputy Premiership of the Council of Ministers without Tikhonov's consent however, Andropov's death in 1984 left Tikhonov secure in his office. [15] Some Western analysts speculated that the appointment of Andrei Gromyko to the First Deputy Premiership, again without Tikhonov's consent, was a sign that his position within the Soviet hierarchy was weakened. Tikhonov was on a state visit to Yugoslavia when Gromyko was appointed to the First Deputy Premiership. [16]

With his health failing, Andropov used his spare times to write speeches to the Central Committee. In one of these speeches Andropov told the Central Committee that Mikhail Gorbachev, and not Chernenko, would succeed him upon his death. His speech was not read out to the Central Committee plenum because of an anti-Gorbachev troika consisting of Chernenko, Dmitriy Ustinov and Tikhonov. During Andropov's last days, Tikhonov presided over the Politburo sessions, headed the 1984 Soviet delegation to the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance conference in East Berlin, conducted bilateral relations with the Eastern Bloc states, and hosted the Prime Minister of Finland when he visited the Soviet Union. In short, in-between Andropov's last days and Chernenko's rise to power, Tikhonov was the dominant driving figure of the Soviet Union. However, Tikhonov peacefully stepped away, and supported Chernenko's candidacy for General Secretary. [13] When Chernenko died in 1985, Tikhonov tried, but failed, to find a contender to Gorbachev's candidacy to the General Secretaryship. [17]

Gorbachev and resignation

Upon Gorbachev's ascension to power, Tikhonov was elected chairman of the newly established Commission on Improvements of the Management System. The title of chairman was largely honorary, and its de facto head was its deputy chairman, Nikolai Ryzhkov. [18] On 23 May 1985 Tikhonov presented his development plan for 1985 to 1990, and up until 2000, the plan was criticised by co-workers, and Gorbachev told his colleagues that Tikhonov was "ill-equipped" for the Premiership. Tikhonov forecast estimated growth of 20–22 percent growth in Soviet national income, an increase of 21–24 percent in industrial growth and doubling Soviet agriculture output by 2000. [3] As part of Gorbachev's plan of removing, and replacing, the most conservative members [19] of the Politburo, Tikhonov was compelled to retire. [20] Ryzhkov succeeded Tikhonov in office on 27 September 1985. [20] His resignation was made official at a Central Committee plenum in September 1985. [21] It is noteworthy that by the time of his resignation, Tikhonov was the oldest member of the Soviet leadership. [22] Tikhonov was active in Soviet politics, albeit in a much less prominent role, until 1989 when he lost his seat in the Central Committee. [1]

Nikolai Tikhonov

Tikhonov was trained as an engineer at the Dnepropetrovsk Metallurgical Institute earning his degree in 1930. From 1930 until 1941 he worked at the Lenin Metallurgical Plant in Dnepropetrovsk and was promoted to senior engineer.

Leonid Brezhnev was a rising party official in Dnepropetrovsk and he and Tikhonov became friends. He joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1940, became a plant director in Ukraine in the late 1940s and became an official in the Ministry of Ferrous Metallurgy in the 1950s becoming deputy minister in 1955. In 1960 Tikhonov became a member of the State Scientific and Economic Council and in 1961 he became a candidate member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party.

Brezhnev became First Secretary (or leader) of the Communist Party in 1964 and promoted Tikhonov to the position of deputy chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, a position he held from 1965 until 1976. In 1966 Tikhonov became a full member of the Central Committee. (October 2, 1965 - September 2, 1976). The 23rd party congress elected Tikhonov a full member of the Central Committee.

In 1976, Tikhonov became one of two First deputy chairmen (or deputy premiers) in the Soviet government and in 1979 he became a full member of the Politburo. In 1980, at the age of 75, he became Chairman of the Council of Ministers (or Premier) and head of government.

Tikhonov retained his post through the Andropov and Chernenko periods but was replaced as premier in September 1985, shortly after Mikhail Gorbachev became General Secretary of the Communist Party (and effective leader of the country). Tikhonov was removed from the Politburo in October 1985 but remained on the Central Committee of the party until 1989.

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Later life and death

After his forced resignation from active politics in 1989, Tikhonov wrote a letter to Mikhail Gorbachev which stated that he regretted supporting his election to the General Secretaryship. [3] This view was strengthened when the Communist Party was banned in the Soviet Union. After his retirement, he lived the rest of his life in seclusion at his dacha. As one of his friends noted, he lived as "a hermit" and never showed himself in public [3] and that his later life was very difficult as he had no children and because his wife had died. [3] Prior to the dissolution of the Soviet Union Tikhonov worked as a State Advisor to the Supreme Soviet. [23] Tikhonov died on 1 June 1997 and was buried at the Novodevichy Cemetery. [24]

According to Time magazine, Tikhonov was a "tried and tested yes man" who had very little experience in foreign and defence policy when he took over the Premiership from Alexei Kosygin. [25] A bust dedicated to Tikhonov can be found in Kharkiv, his birthplace. [26] Tikhonov, when compared to other Soviet premiers, has made little impact on post-Soviet culture and his legacy is remembered by few today. [6] During his lifetime Tikhonov was awarded several awards he was awarded nine Order of Lenins, two Order of the Red Banner of Labour, one Red Star, two Stalin Prizes and several medals and foreign awards. [1]